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Synchronization is a mechanism in Java that ensures that only one thread can access a shared resource at a time. It helps in avoiding race conditions, which can cause unpredictable and incorrect behavior in a multi-threaded environment.

There are two ways to achieve synchronization in Java:

  1. Synchronized Method: You can declare a method as synchronized by using the synchronized keyword. When a thread invokes a synchronized method, it acquires a lock on the object that the method belongs to. The lock is released when the method returns. Only one thread can execute a synchronized method on an object at a time.

Synchronized keyword

  1. Synchronized Block: You can also synchronize a block of code instead of an entire method. This is useful when multiple threads need to access different parts of the same method, but you want to synchronize access to a shared resource.

Synchronized Block

It’s important to note that synchronization has an overhead, so it’s not always the best solution for performance-critical sections of your code. When possible, you should use synchronization only to protect critical sections of your code and use other concurrency mechanisms, such as atomic variables or lock-free data structures, to increase performance.

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Static Synchronization in java

Static synchronization in Java is a mechanism to synchronize the execution of a block of code by multiple threads on the class level instead of on the instance level. In other words, it ensures that only one thread at a time can execute the synchronized code of a particular class.

A synchronized block can be used to control the access to a shared resource in a multi-threaded environment. When a thread enters a synchronized block, it acquires a lock on the class object, and any other thread that tries to enter a synchronized block of the same class will be blocked until the first thread leaves the block.

Here’s an example of how you can use static synchronization in Java:

static Synchronization in java

static Synchronization example in java

In this example, two threads MyThread1 and MyThread2 are executing the same printTable method. However, the method is declared as synchronized, so only one thread can enter the method at a time. The lock on the class object is used to control access to the shared resource, ensuring that only one thread at a time can execute the printTable method.